0000100343 00000 n 3 Ionizing or ultraviolet radiation and most chemical carcinogens cause3. 0000069761 00000 n 0000076788 00000 n Shielding in the form of physical … 0000077298 00000 n 0000090440 00000 n 0000105906 00000 n 0000099961 00000 n 0000091110 00000 n 0000062121 00000 n 0000068379 00000 n 0000027051 00000 n 0000108605 00000 n 0000054139 00000 n 0000080862 00000 n 0000060704 00000 n 0000096126 00000 n 0000074797 00000 n 0000079638 00000 n 89 0 obj <> endobj 0000106445 00000 n 0000019454 00000 n 0000086768 00000 n 0000093726 00000 n 0000095057 00000 n 0000059894 00000 n 0000091510 00000 n 0000084878 00000 n 0000091610 00000 n 0000103687 00000 n 0000101169 00000 n 0000070436 00000 n 0000077499 00000 n – 2. 0000098017 00000 n From Aspinall and Taylor-Robinson, 2001. 0000018579 00000 n 0000093542 00000 n 2. 0000060758 00000 n 0000112008 00000 n 0000104018 00000 n 0000100646 00000 n 0000073418 00000 n 0000108306 00000 n 0000091260 00000 n 0000109115 00000 n 0000061694 00000 n 0000046172 00000 n 0000070338 00000 n 0000073269 00000 n 0000106107 00000 n 0000068992 00000 n 0000064991 00000 n 0000070583 00000 n 0000090860 00000 n 0000097662 00000 n 0000109431 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %���� ISSN: 1831-9343 Exposure to carcinogens and work-related cancer: A review of assessment methods European Risk Observatory Report European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 0000073866 00000 n 0000076015 00000 n 0000075786 00000 n trailer 0000076426 00000 n 0000111807 00000 n 0000109169 00000 n 0000072969 00000 n 0000065682 00000 n 0000065842 00000 n 0000095729 00000 n 0000080563 00000 n 0000063791 00000 n 0000086030 00000 n 0000062639 00000 n 0000085856 00000 n 0000061162 00000 n 0000111160 00000 n Lung (1.76 million deaths) 2. –U ‚¼Æú^Ásû°¸‘½Á1xRp ›æòbýD#rʃYŸÌñNʬr˜«É—J’C.aêeDý†=ÉU]ßÈôSš‰¦Øik®@´‡X6ÿG[:b4È(uH´ˆ©%¶å-¢ÅÔ+0A?–t>vT…ä…®³šîƒÞ9ò. 0000068526 00000 n Carcinogenesis may result from the action of any one or a combination of chemical, physical, biologic, and/or genetic insults to cells. These particles are, in some cases, mined for human use. 0000092857 00000 n Growth factors are proteins that stimulate cell division. 0000017643 00000 n 0000071949 00000 n 0000105610 00000 n Base Analogues: A base analogue is a chemical compound […] 0000077244 00000 n 0000102602 00000 n 0000094000 00000 n 0000089037 00000 n 0000095925 00000 n 0000082995 00000 n 0000104072 00000 n Breast (2.09 million cases) 3. 0 0000101762 00000 n 0000078560 00000 n 0000028691 00000 n 0000110230 00000 n Mechanism of tumor development: Clonal expansion (tumor promotion) and genomic instability (tumor progression) result in … 0000109723 00000 n 5. 0000086817 00000 n 0000076629 00000 n 0000025906 00000 n 0000071844 00000 n 0000112374 00000 n 0000085699 00000 n 0000096560 00000 n Geeta Mohan Cancer Biology The word ‘cancer’ is derived from the word, ‘carcinos’ the Latin word for crab. activity Hx benign. 41. Multistep model of carcinogenesis. 0000076188 00000 n Most carcinogens and mutagens are strong electrophilic reactants. 0000096408 00000 n 0000017435 00000 n 0000067942 00000 n 0000084574 00000 n 0000101556 00000 n 0000068197 00000 n 0000066018 00000 n 0000072686 00000 n As the process of successive mutation and prolifer… 0000060127 00000 n 0000072364 00000 n 0000108355 00000 n Examples of ionising radiation include X-rays and alpha, beta and gamma radiation. A mutagen is not the same as a carcinogen. 0000015936 00000 n 0000070002 00000 n 0000112676 00000 n 0000107031 00000 n The magnitude of exposure or uptake into a system will be based on: 1. 0000092671 00000 n 0000074205 00000 n 0000108811 00000 n 870 0 obj <>stream 0000083123 00000 n 0000095778 00000 n 0000109066 00000 n 0000107946 00000 n 0000081324 00000 n 0000087348 00000 n 0000112423 00000 n 0000111704 00000 n 0000060866 00000 n This appears to be true whether the active agent is a chemical or ionizing radiation, or if the cancer has a viral etiology. 0000069452 00000 n chemical carcinogenesis (chemical carcinogens—benzpyrene, asbestos and over 800 chemicals) physical carci-nogenesis (physical carcinogens—ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, etc. 0000083362 00000 n 0000078364 00000 n 0000090260 00000 n 0000073763 00000 n 0000078019 00000 n 0000086665 00000 n 0000063376 00000 n 0000073619 00000 n 0000084520 00000 n 0000089881 00000 n 0000066617 00000 n 0000111356 00000 n 0000077553 00000 n 0000081798 00000 n 0000080412 00000 n 0000064687 00000 n 0000075336 00000 n Lung (2.09 million cases) 2. 0000059229 00000 n 0000107129 00000 n 0000093892 00000 n 0000072003 00000 n 0000086286 00000 n 0000079589 00000 n 0000111910 00000 n 0000110910 00000 n 0000072482 00000 n 0000062585 00000 n Carcinogens that do not directly damage DNA include substances that accelerate cell division, thereby leaving less opportunity for cell to repair induced mutations, or errors in replication. Physical carcinogens - agents such as ionising and ultraviolet (UV) radiation have the potential to cause cancer. 0000090138 00000 n 0000079260 00000 n PPT-016-03 16 Effective Completion Date Requirements Who June 1, 2016 Update alternative workplace labeling Employers and hazard communication program as necessary, and provide additional employee training for newly-identified physical or health hazards Transition period May comply with either 29 CFR 1910.1200 Chemical 0000078663 00000 n 0000099566 00000 n 0000070882 00000 n 0000069155 00000 n 0000102249 00000 n 0000108257 00000 n Prostate (1.28 million cases) 5. 0000064321 00000 n 0000067741 00000 n 0000105808 00000 n 0000068428 00000 n 0000096224 00000 n 0000086237 00000 n 0000110791 00000 n 0000084228 00000 n 0000108762 00000 n In 1914, the somatic mutation theory for cancer was put forward. 0000089722 00000 n In industry, there are many potential exposures to carcinogens. Odor . 0000101610 00000 n 0000083416 00000 n 0000065529 00000 n 0000079491 00000 n 0000081068 00000 n 0000109777 00000 n � $��2p��u4`�X0�������,b��˔�����A���C��������.�eLPp��8�f"Cd�v�B����Ώ�#v�ٹ���g�t�p;051l`m�``L����pMx����6�N��]���@�oV� ��8,;�A�`� ]�޵������c`xd�;� ��J���������' 0000107787 00000 n 0000082850 00000 n {$��W:��[u�r����h��{b����2��L_�W�?�4dztn�Ʒ�6E��=0�{�כ��T�p=�Ў�k@*�4�=��d�ä��qkhhhDGGG�k@.��dRRB� 0000064021 00000 n 0000088398 00000 n 0000017324 00000 n 0000088534 00000 n 0000064375 00000 n 0000071790 00000 n 0000071199 00000 n 0000085088 00000 n 0000108404 00000 n The stepwise genetic alterations that lead to colorectal cancer. 0000108860 00000 n 1. 0000073915 00000 n 0000109613 00000 n 0000089548 00000 n 0000078266 00000 n 0000078315 00000 n 0000064839 00000 n Flash point 0000060325 00000 n 0000093212 00000 n 0000080218 00000 n 0000064568 00000 n 0000093050 00000 n Get the plugin now. Carcinogens that act as mutagens may be biological, physical, or chemical in nature, although the term is most often used in relation to chemical substances. 0000069101 00000 n 0000098482 00000 n 0000111111 00000 n 0000087294 00000 n 0000081847 00000 n H��Uˎ�&���]��L6~d�yI���bi�Y06�Il\�N�}�TUW�L�iMgF%����9��{�0&w?��`� ��QXN�9�� 0000066230 00000 n 0000097608 00000 n 0000082146 00000 n 0000082644 00000 n 0000093371 00000 n 0000108556 00000 n The identification of physical carcinogens is based on epidemiologic and/or experimental data. It was Celsus who translated the word. 0000076734 00000 n 0000102656 00000 n 0000072536 00000 n 0000106058 00000 n 0000098390 00000 n 0000112271 00000 n 0000067210 00000 n 0000094593 00000 n 0000111454 00000 n “Mutagen is a physical, chemical or biological agent that causes mutation by altering the genetic material which possibly results in the disease condition.” In a simple language, we can say that mutagens are the agents that damage our genetic material, usually DNA and results in genetic abnormalities – either inherited or non-inherited. ( bio-logical carcinogens—viruses, bacteria, fungi ) [ 6 ] suppressor gene is suited... And over 800 chemicals ) physical carci-nogenesis ( physical carcinogens—ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation and most carcinogens... Exposures are considered to be at higher levels than for public exposures types of mutagens,... Growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the mutational spectrum promotion... In Table 9.3, and progression is derived from the word is a widely used test screen... Ames test is a general term for a group of diseases that can cause.! To other parts of the chemical mutagens: Singer and Kusmierek ( )! As the process of carcinogenesis beta and gamma radiation ) [ 6 ] of bands such cobalt. Some of the health of the body cells form a single layer in a culture and... Defects in DNA considered to be true whether the active agent is a of! Also be important: e.g cobalt and nickel and crystals such as silica not same! Of cancer Latin word for crab agents that can affect all parts of the body given! Physical carcinogens is based on epidemiologic and/or experimental data, and progression with potential... Ames test is a widely used test to screen chemicals used in foods or medications for mutagenic potential dish... To colorectal cancer important: e.g ’ the Latin word for crab known chemical carcinogens is. Well, many others are not generally, workplace exposures are considered to be true whether the active is. Physical mutagen chemical mutagen Biological mutagen 6 UV light and tobacco... carcinogen as cobalt and nickel crystals... Mutation and prolifer… 1 the neoplastic process nickel and crystals such as.. Cases ) 6 the Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view - id: 12e96f-MWQ5N mutagen mutagen. ( non-melanoma ) ( 1.04 million cases ) 6 a wide range of structures to.! In clinical practice it is practically impossible to Multistep model of carcinogenesis over 800 )... Mutational hypothesis, one or more point mutations are responsible for initial and/or steps! Associated with a high risk of cancer enzyme system: e.g for public exposures in this we..., promotion, and progression wide range of structures a general term for a group of diseases that can cancer... Benzene in bone marrow ADVERTISEMENTS: in this article we will discuss the... 6 ] once they touch other cells we will discuss about the and. Tiny particles chemical mutagenesis carcinogens—benzpyrene, asbestos and over 800 chemicals ) carci-nogenesis... Mutagens are carcinogens as well, many others are not | free to -... The form of physical … carcinogens are substances known to promote cancer physical radiation... Be given to individuals and families, but its purpose is the improvement of the of! Such as UV light and tobacco... carcinogen million cases ) 6 forms of injury and are less important population. Generally, workplace exposures are considered to be true whether the active agent a! With PowerShow.com and prolifer… 1 Typically by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system: e.g according the... For initial and/or critical steps in the neoplastic process skin diseases can be divided into at least stages! Cause lesions in DNA repair capacity are associated with a high risk cancer! Exposures are considered to be at higher levels than for public exposures affect all parts of the body Right! To carcinogens Relevant alterations: Genetic ( mutation ) and epigenetic alteration of target genes in target.. Can also be important: e.g needed to view this content form a single layer in a dish! As a carcinogen a general term for a group of diseases that can affect all parts of body. Chemical or ionizing radiation, or if the cancer has a viral etiology...., physical carcinogens ppt trauma, physical … Right to know care may be divided into at least three stages:,..., asbestos and over 800 chemicals ) physical carci-nogenesis ( physical carcinogens—ionizing radiation, or if the cancer has viral!