Habitat management in agricultural landscapes can support pollinator services and even augment crop production. Answer. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. aquatica at 07º31.082'N; 004º31.531'E (277 m) and 07º31.592'N; 004º31.869'E (271 m). e.g. The former are borne on subaerial and the latter on subterranean shoots, in addition to those on aerial spathes. In: Horner N.V. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 72:211-222. Commelina lagosensis has been recorded from Senegal to Southern Nigeria, and also occurring in East Africa. In each of the accessions, the time of opening and closing of flowers, anther dehiscence and insect visitation were observed three times a week between 0400 h and 1300 h over a period of four months. Background Many crops are dependent on pollination by insects. In other words, the transfer of pollen grains from the opened anther of the stamen to the receptive stigma of the carpel is called pollination. 2001, 2002, 2007). In Oxalis and Commelina, there is no need for pollinator as they are closed flowers. In: Wilson, K.L. 2). 3). Pp. Zostera is the marine seagrass which gets pollinated by water. In addition, while coiling, the stigma brushed the lateral anther and became dusted with pollen before hitting the central anther. Cytologia 56:181-186. aquatica and C. diffusa subsp. Purity of characters is maintained. (2007) for the Asiatic dayflower, Com melina communis L. (Fig. 3). … Advantages and Disadvantages of Cross-Pollination 3. 2009 Dec;34(6):977-90. It bears staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in spathes. Buzz pollination in angiosperms. Nicht winterhart. montana, the low seed-set from staminodes in spontaneous and hand pollination indicated that the staminodes do not play a direct role in the pollination of these species, as observed in other species (Kaul & Koul 2012). On interchange complexes in Commelina diffusa Burn F. from South eastern Nigeria. 34(6), December 2009 1. Staminal varation and its possible significance in Commelina benghalensis L. and Commelina caroliniana Walter. montana, each having two staminodes); two variants of C. erecta (with three staminodes); and C. lagosensis (also with three staminodes). The Hyparrhenia involucrate-H. sub plumosa (Gramineae) complex in Nigeria: morphological and cytological characterization. Pollination in plants is the process where pollen is transferred from the anther, the male part of a flower, to the stigma, the female part of a flower. In Yucca, the flowers are pollinated by … Breeding strategy in Commelina benghalensis L. 979 J. Biosci. The measurements obtained were subjected to one-way ANOVA, and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test. Although the pollen from the lateral and central anthers was capable of siring seeds, the staminode pollen rarely set seeds. In such flowers, the anther and stigma lie very close to each other. 2013. [ Links ], Faden, R.B.1992a. 1) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. aquatica presented very low percent pollen stainability in all three of its stamens and produced no seeds in any of the pollination treatments. montana along Olonade Street in Ile-Ife, at 07º30.372'N; 004º32.373'E (901 m) and 07º30.305'N; 004º32.801'E (284 m). Commelina variants studied, pollination occurs mainly through autogamy via the lateral and central anthers. montana Morton). Apart from the arrangement of the stamens in the flowers, another factor that seemed to determine the proximity of the lateral anther to the stigma was filament length. Nomenclature: Benghal dayﬂower, Commelina benghalensis L., COMBE. Commelina diffusa variants produced maximum of five hermaphrodite flowers and one staminate flower per spathe. Cross - Pollination: When pollen grains are transferred from the anther tothe stigma of flowers of same species of a separate plant is called cross-pollination. 3). The blue color of the petals, as well as the bright yellow color of the lateral and central anthers, of the three species of Commelina studied here indicates their ability to attract insects, as suggested for the central stamen of C. erecta (Faden 1992b). Colored floral organs were removed artificially from plants in two natural populations of C. communis. The high percent pollen stainability of the central and lateral stamens in Commelina erecta, C. lagosensis and C. diffusa subsp. The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy. This might be explained by the small quantity of pollen, the shorter filaments of the staminodes and the inability of its fertile lobes to dehisce (Hrcyan & Davies 2005; Kaul & Koul 2008; Kaul & Koul 2012). Commelina L., a member of the monocotyledonous plant family Commelinaceae, is a cosmopolitan genus of some 170 species possessing notoriously delicate, ephemeral ﬂ owers that last only part of a day before deliquescing (hence their common name “ dayﬂ owers ” ). aquatica is quite similar to C. diffusa var. Pollination. The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma is called pollination. aquatica produced deep blue petals, whereas C. erecta e2, C. lago sensis and C. diffusa subsp. Nearly half of all Commelina species are polyploid, and members of the genus are known to show irregular multiples of the basic number of chromosomes (Grabiele et al. gigas (Faden 1993). For more information, visit http://journals.cambridge.org. Many plants are pollinated by a particular animal species and the flowers are modified accordingly and thus there exists a co-evolution between plants and animals.. Let us imagine if pollination fails. They contrast with the flowers of C. caroliniana and Commelina benghalensis L., which are brightly colored and are visited by numerous insects, mainly hymenopterans (Kaul & Koul 2008; 2012). Also, anthers & stigma should be close to each other. Die Knollen müssen vor dem Winter aus dem Boden genommen und im Kalthaus überwintert werden. [ Links ], Walker-Larson, J. It bears staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in spathes. Studies on pollination ecology were prevalent even before Darwin; they became intense after Darwin formulated the … In some spathes, structurally hermaphrodite flowers of the third and fourth orders function either as male or female. 381-387. 2005). Self-pollination takes place in flower like Bean, Tomato, Commelina etc. Full pollen grains in which the cytoplasm content stained uniformly blue were counted as viable, whereas those that did not stain or were partially stained and with collapsed outline were counted as non-viable (Olorode & Baquar 1976). Commelinaceae. Sex expression and breeding strategy in Commelina benghalensis L. Authors; Authors and affiliations; Veenu Kaul; Awtar Kishen Koul; Article. In Yucca, the flowers are pollinated by yucca moth. Although polyploidy occurs in C. diffusa, most variants of the species (70%) are diploid (Grabiele et al. Anthers of two of the three fertile stamens are light grey; that of the third central stamen is yellow. Commelina diffusa subsp. pollination, Commelina communis, corolla, pollinators, pollen, stigma, foraging Abstract: Visual floral guides such as colored anthers, lines, dots, and UV-absorption patterns on petals are commonly observed in insect-pollinated angiosperms. Many of these journals are the leading academic publications in their fields and together they form one of the most valuable and comprehensive bodies of research available today. aquatica, which shows low pollen stainability. Walker-Larson and Harder (2000) list pollinator attraction through visual cues or by providing floral rewards, a role commonly filled by staminodes. Wird in Deutschland als Knolle im Blumenzwiebelhandel verkauft. Faden (1993) also speculated that sterility occurs due to the hexaploid nature of C. diffusa var. 3). Autogamy in such flowers requires synchrony in pollen release and stigma receptivity. The production of two or more types of stamens in the same flower (heteranthery) may help reduce the fitness costs arising from pollen consumption by pollinators by allowing different sets of stamens to specialize in "pollinating" and "feeding" functions. It can […] Commelina, viola, and oxalis that carries both chasmogamous and Cliestogamy flowers. 57-66. Filament length was recorded as the distance between the pedicel-receptacle junction and the anther-filament junction (Ushimaru & Nakata 2002); style length was determined in a similar manner, from the pedicel-receptacle junction to the stigma. Autogamy (self-pollination): It is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to stigma of the same flower. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. [ Links ], Faden, R.B. purported to have a generalist, yet deceptive, pollination biol-ogy involving ﬂ ies and bees ( Faden, 1992 ). Commelina communis is self‐compatible, and can exhibit delayed autogamy or bud pollination ( Morita & Nigorikawa 1999 ). Commelina benghalensis L., an andromonoecious rainy season weed, bears male and bisexual flowers in axillary spathes of all the plants investigated. aquatica Morton and C. diffusa subsp. Percent pollen stainability was very low in all of the stamen types of Commelina diffusa subsp. We also observed that the stigma often missed the stamens entirely and took no pollen during coiling. [ Links ], Luo, Z.; Zhang, D. & Renner, S.S. 2008. V. 1. Floral phenology in relation to pollination and reproductive output in Commelina caroliniana (Commelinaceae) Author: Kaul, Veenu, Koul, A.K.
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