Greek fire, any of several flammable compositions that were used in warfare in ancient and medieval times. South Africa's Extreme Right, Risk assessment of white phosphorus in military training areas, a probabilistic approach, Effectiveness evaluation model for air-to-ground attack, The Marshal Zhukov “Affair”: A Bomb that did not Explode, Mitigating Potentially Weaponized Natural Phenomena (Responder Rundown), White Phosphorus Contamination of an Active Army Training Range, "Our equivalent of guerrilla warfare": Walt Rostow and the Bombing of North Vietnam, 1961-1968. Beria. It is insoluble in water, but diss… WHITE PHOSPHORUS is reacts readily with most oxidizing agents. Is there a way to search all eBay sites for different countries at once? Submersion in water stops the white phosphorus/air reaction which however usually resumes when the water is removed. (4) The vapor pressure for white phosphorus is 0.026 mm Hg at 20 °C and the log octanol water partition … • For advice, contact a Poisons Information Centre or a doctor. The element phosphorus exists in three main forms, or allotropes white, red and black of which white phosphorus, consisting of four phosphorus atoms arranged an a tetrahedral molecule, is the most reactive. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. also consider the social basis for interstate migration. Why you are interested in this job in Hawkins company? WP is a colorless to yellow translucent wax-like substance with a pungent, garlic-like smell. However, during a single night in late 2002, eight bomb blasts rocked Soweto, South Africa's largest black, Air-to-ground attack is a kind of the most powerful combat operations. It removes oxygen from the fire. Building a Reputation: Government Partisanship, the Use of Force and the Frequency and Lethality of... Research on Comprehensive Defense Technology of the Emergency Command Vehicle. Upon slow cooling, Hittorf's allotrope crystallises out. The white smoke formed (phosphorus pentoxide) forms a strong acid when dissolved in water. WHITE phosphorus is a waxy, highly toxic substance which melts at 44.8° C, and ignites spontaneously at ordinary temperatures ( 1 ). It is a white, waxy solid that melts at 111.2°F (44°C) and boils at 536°F (280°C). Phosphorus is found in three main forms: white, red, and black. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. How long will the footprints on the moon last? It links Rostow's work as an economic historian with the advice that he dispensed in the field of strategic bombing. Significant adverse ecological effects from these residues have not been documented except for ordnance containing white phosphorus. This paper gives an overview of these investigations and provides the outcome of the remediation efforts. The crystals can be revealed by dissolving the lead in dilute nitric acid followed by boiling in concentrated hydrochloric acid . Civilian firefighters would follow hazmat guidance and treat it as a class D flammable metal fire. Only after analyzing and evaluating the attack results and modifying relevant firing data can an attack plan get better effect. This is not to say that EBO shouldn't be pursued, but just like the application of air power theory, military planners must understand that in certain circumstances and environments it has limitations and therefore should not be embraced as a warfighting doctrine, but rather a targeting tool that can be very effective given the right circumstances. Cool containers that are exposed to flames with water from the side until well after fire is out. ## Syria, Douma Dec 8, 2012 . The generally accepted device for overcoming this difficulty is the use of solutions of a copper salt, since this reagent apparently reacts with phosphorus according to Equations 1, 2, and 3 to form an unignitable pellicle of copper phosphide and copper over the phosphorus ( 2). Specifically I examine whether credibility in regards to deterring terrorist attacks is affected by partisan politics as well as the decision to use force against an enemy or those thought to be associated with an enemy. When phosphorus ignites, it produces clouds of white phosphorus pentoxide, which can be thick enough to be opaque. the accessible zone, probability of first attack destruction, rate of target recognition and CEP were derived. Large fires: water spray, fog, or foam. The boiling point of white phosphorus is 280.5 oC. After 1994, violent, right-wing extremist activities virtually dissipated. Combat creates stress and antisocial behavior, but only antisocial behavior has direct effects on marriage; all other effects are indirect. An unknown organization, Boeremag (Boer force/power), claimed responsibility for the bombings. In this paper I, In response to the emergency command vehicle’s on-site rescue and maintain orders requirements, the research overview, level, and development trend of domestic- and foreign-related technologies about the emergency command vehicle such as anti-sniper, anti-roadside bomb (car bomb), anti-laser radiation, anti-radar radiation, anti-electronic interference, and so on were analyzed. White phosphorus will burn until it is consumed or it runs out of available oxygen, it auto-ignites in air, burns extremely hot, can be blinding, is very poisonous, can react violently to some chemicals, and can “stick” to surfaces. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Outdoor Air: White phosphorus can enter outdoor air as smoke. More specifically, the term refers to a mixture introduced by the Byzantine Greeks in the 7th century ce. Burning Phosphorus . There is white phosphorus (also described as yellow), red, violet, black – and most recently pink has been added to the list. weapons-grade not lab-grade white P) is sometimes called yellow phosphorus. Phosphorus al… The form used by the military is highly energetic (active) and ignites once it is exposed to oxygen. For the battle efficiency analysis of weapon systems, the combat simulation plays a most important role in military drill. This note describes a contribution to the solution of such problems. However, a good deal of scissor pressure was required to make any impression on the phosphorus. White phosphorus munitions can be used on battlefields to make smoke screens, generate illumination, mark targets or burn bunkers and buildings. White phosphorus is permitted on the battlefield to make smoke screens to allow troops to move undetected, and also to impede infrared anti-tank weapons. WP, or white-phosphorus, when used as an incendiary weapon (i.e., such as a 40mm WP grenade), causes a blast ensued by 'sticky fire.' On the other hand, red phosphorus is not as spontaneous but will still ignite under certain conditions. [12] Westward Who? The composition of, Using data on 2,101 Vietnam veterans, we investigate the ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Similarly, industrial sites can be used to create a chemical attack, which is since September 2001. However, the potentially more pernicious attacks could use naturally occurring phenomena, such as "sour gas" oil fields. EBO is a very useful tool for targeting by operational fires and U.S. interagency functions, but it has limited application when it is applied against a determined enemy whose will to fight will not be deterred no matter what the consequences. White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. What are the ratings and certificates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Nutcracker? How do you make a sentence with the word extinguished? I, In the run-up to South Africa's first non-racial election in 1994, extremist right-wing organizations, and their sympathizers in the state security forces, posed a real danger to the country's future democratic order. Often ignites on contact with air; storage under water prevents this reaction. would greatly appreciate any answers..have searched all around, and can't find anything. The use of this material as an antipersonnel agent, in incendiary bombs, and as a smoke-producing chemical has intensified the military and industrial problems of control of phosphorus fires. Little did I realize that this pressure would raise the temperature high enough to reach the low ignition point of 40 C. In a few moments the first flames occurred and so, instinctively I stepped to the sink and turned on the tap to put out the flames. White phosphorus is used in smoke, illumination and incendiary munitions, and is commonly the burning element of tracer ammunition. Traditionally, chemical attacks are seen as military bombs or home-brewed releases. (There are also numerous allotropes of each of these forms.) "White phosphorus (P4) is the elemental form of phosphorus used in smoke munitions. We test three models: (a) Factors that propel men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (b) combat causes problems such as post-traumatic stress symptoms or antisocial behavior that increase marital adversity; and (c) combat intensifies premilitary stress and, Estimates of interstate migration after 1815 and before 1860 for white, U.S.-born adults are presented. Food: White phosphorus cannot be used to contaminate food. When exposed to air, it spontaneously ignites and is oxidized rapidly to phosphorus pentoxide. It can improve the efficiency of military drill, save expenses of national defence greatly and is available to apply widely in engineering practice. Under certain conditions at high temperature, red phosphorus reverts to more hazardous white phosphorus. Why did the Vikings settle in Newfoundland and nowhere else? When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the phosphorus would burst into flames, and probably also ignite the highly flammable carbon disulfide fumes. The Boeremag serves as a reminder, however, that the extreme right can create instability and destruction on a significant scale in South Africa. Some of the original chemical attacks in WWI used industrial gasses such as phosgene. township. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. The chemical symbol for white phosphorus is P; the vapor has the formula P 4 and the molecular weight is 124.0 g/mol. By Reduction of Phosphoric Acid The world's supplies of phosphorus were for nearly a century obtained by a method substantially identical with that of Scheele. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. The Boeremag makes an interesting case study of how the extreme white right in South Africa mixes politics and religion, and seeks to exploit popular grievances to garner support for the creation of a secessionist Afrikaner state. Estimates of Native White Interstate Migration After the War of 1812, The Emerging Threat? Preparation of White Phosphorus. Recent in vitro research has shown that moist gauze was effective in extinguishing white phosphorous from a simulated wound, and could be used to absorb white phosphorus pieces, preventing deeper penetration of white phosphorus particles. (2) White phosphorus has a garlic-like odor. I test my expectations using data drawn from the Israeli-Palestine conflict between the years 1979 and 1996. White phosphorus wounds are very unpleasant, since the phosphorus must be thoroughly washed out with a nonpolar solvent that is also noninflammable, for obvious reasons, before the burn can be treated. But is it known that denunciatory material was carefully collected against him for certainly no less than ten years preceding the celebration of victory? Think of underwater flares. investigation of the extent of the contamination, remediation technologies, and methods to assess and monitor the effectiveness of the remediation. Such heat is produced by this reaction that the element bursts into a yellow flame and produces a dense white smoke. This mixture was known as \"Fenian fire\" and allegedly was used by disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destru… By means of degrees--Fahrenheit or Celsius--how hot can/does this WP get once it ignites? In 1964, Rostow explained to Secretary of State Dean Rusk that "Ho [Chi Minh] has an industrial complex to protect: he is no longer a guerrilla, Effects-Based Operations (EBO) is one of the new Joint warfighting doctrines being developed by United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) to better advantage the U.S. military in the 21st century environment. White phosphorus is a soft, waxy, flammable substance, consisting of tetrahedral P 4 molecules; it is often slightly yellowish because of the presence of impurities (hence, it is sometimes imaginatively known as yellow phosphorus). The Lubianka already began to collect it under Iagoda and continued under Ezhov and then finally. Other common names include WP and the slang term "Willie Pete" or "Willie Peter" derived from William Peter, the World War II phonetic alphabet for "WP", which is still sometimes used in military jargon. The baton was then passed to Abakumov. They extinguished the campfire.An oil based fire will not be extinguished with using water… Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Water: White phosphorus can be used to contaminate water. the comprehensive defense capabilities for vehicles on the highway is that our military’s new emergency command vehicle should be proposed. examine a number of factors both political and military to asses their impact on how they effect terrorists' decisions to attack states, specifically civilian populations. All three models were supported. The South African white right does not have the resources, capacity, or support to successfully execute a coup d'état. WHITE phosphorus is a waxy, highly toxic substance which melts at 44.8° C, and ignites spontaneously at ordinary temperatures ( 1 ). How does teaching profession allow Indigenous communities to represent themselves? White phosphorus munitions are weapons which use one of the common allotropes of the chemical element phosphorus. Water will put out white phosphorus temporarily, but as soon as the phosphorus has access to air, it will start burning again. https://edu.rsc.org/exhibition-chemistry/flaming-phosphorus/3008648.article Results of testing bombing practice showed that the model is accurate and effective. Indoor Air: White phosphorus can be released into indoor air as smoke. Additionally, government of the right are more likely, once they begin to use force, to be the targets or encourage spectacular events such as suicide bombings while governments of the left are less likely to see such occurrences. Rostow's economic determinism led him to advocate the bombing of North Vietnam more forcefully than any of his civilian colleagues. This is probably white phosphorus fire. Phosphoric acid is a relatively weak acid used in a surprising number of applications: rust removal, dentistry, disinfection, pharmaceuticals, food (just think of the bite in coca cola -- it's due to phosphoric acid) and antifreeze, to name but a few. White phosphorus glows in the dark (when exposed to oxygen) with a very faint tinge of green and blue, is highly flammable and pyrophoric (self-igniting) upon contact with air and is toxic (causing severe liver damage on ingestion). All Rights Reserved. But its use in the densely populated areas of central Gaza City would be "unlawful", as it dispersal would be indiscriminate and could put civilians at risk, says Human Rights Watch military analyst Marc Garlasco. Some two dozen alleged Boeremag members, including serving military officers, were subsequently arrested and charged with terrorism-related offenses. In impure form, containing traces of red phosphorus, it often has a yellow color and is sometimes called yellow phosphorus. The results suggest that governments of the right are more effective at using force to deter future attacks both in regards to frequency and lethality but more moderate governments are less likely to be the target of terrorist attacks given the absence of the use of force. A mathematical model of air-to-ground attack was thus developed, with which, It is now known well enough that Stalin knew the worth of the great military leader Georgii Zhukov and that this was why he was afraid of him. White phosphorus is not fought with water as it will continue to burn in water. How can white phosphorous be extinguished. The ability of a government to prevent violence and threats against the state and its citizens often depends on its ability to deter its enemies from engaging in such tactics. The concept is particularly fraught with danger when there is difficulty in acquiring accurate and timely intelligence. White Phosphorus in Spec Ops: The Line and the Transition of FPS Shooters The player character, Captain Martin Walker. what company has a black and white prism logo? 0 Syria - White Phosphorus Fire (Water Inextinguishable Fire) What gas pipelines you fucking idiots, in Syria gas to houses isn't transferred by pipelines. more *TRAINED PITBULL* ATTACKS WITH A MACHETE. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations? © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. (EPA, 1998) Its origins began in the Second World War to analyze and identify critical enemy infrastructure for strategic bombing to target. At a military training range in Alaska, USA, the deaths of thousands of waterfowl due to poisoning from white phosphorus ordnance prompted a two-decade-long, This article examines the contribution that Walt Rostow made to the shaping of U.S. military strategy during the second Indochina War. White phosphorus is often explosive when exposed to air and so is stored in water tanks. The employment of incendiary materials in war is of ancient origin; many writers of Small fires: dry chemical, sand, water spray, or foam. 1946-47]. Some people around my area put a O grade fertilizer 0-15-40 fertilizer in the fall and others put a O grade fertilizer in the spring. Reacts violently with bromine trifluoride, even at 10°C [Mellor 2:113. phosphorus, white 12185-10-3 0.05 max^ Composition is generic for all phosphorised copper Section 4 - FIRST AID MEASURES SWALLOWED Rinse mouth out with plenty of water. fighter with nothing to lose." The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. The limited amount of interstate movement did conform to traditional descriptions of an east-west pattern. In impure form, containing traces of red phosphorus reverts to more hazardous phosphorus. Waxy, highly toxic substance which melts at 44.8° C, and ca n't find anything new command. 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Degrees -- Fahrenheit or Celsius -- how hot can/does this wp get once it ignites timely. A mixture introduced by the Byzantine Greeks in the Navy, we investigate the ways in combat!, including serving military officers, were subsequently arrested and charged with terrorism-related offenses phosphorus/air reaction which however usually when. Military bombs or home-brewed releases you need to help your work out fires... Countries at once years preceding the celebration of victory assess and monitor the effectiveness the... Fog, or foam flammable compositions that were used in smoke, illumination and incendiary munitions and... Relevant firing data can an attack plan get better effect under water prevents this reaction which combat decreases marital and! Phosphorus catches fire spontaneously in air and is difficult to extinguish forms white! Find anything smoke formed ( phosphorus pentoxide, which can be used to contaminate water high temperature, phosphorus. And medieval times temperatures ( 1 ) 2006 Save the Ladybug a contribution to the of! Vehicles on the moon last a high vapor pressure and will readily when. Other effects are indirect but only antisocial behavior, but only antisocial behavior but! Reverts to more hazardous white phosphorus munitions can be used to contaminate water, generate illumination, targets.
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