Incorrect: Carrie mimicked his tilted head [and] then laughed. In this case, it is acting as an interrupter: Correct: The suit, to be fair, suited him. Should I use a comma before an opening quotation mark? To avoid using unnecessary commas, make sure that you are familiar with all the rules in this Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruits, are high in vitamin C. We like to plan our vacations around three-day weekends, such as Labor Day. When using a vocative in the middle of a sentence, make sure that you're not actually creating a comma splice by joining two independent clauses. Yes, we expect to attend the Christmas party. Incorrect: The value of Pi is 3.141,59 to five decimal places. The comma every third digit is sometimes known as a “thousands-separator.” Make sure you don’t include a space on either side of this comma. In some cases it can be tricky to decide. Vocatives should always be used with commas. You can see that they "add" some information to a "verb" or the sentence that they are modifying. e.g. If you eat a balanced diet and exercise for a few hours each day, you will feel healthier. Incorrect: The games, the longest of, which lasted two hours, were fun. When a date consists of the day of the month followed by the year, the day of the month should be followed by a comma. I will give the document to my brother, Tom. That’s a long list, and it requires some knowledge of grammatical terminology to process it. Incorrect: The bright, yellow jacket looked amazing. When using listing commas, the comma before the final "and" or "or" is optional depending on if you are using Oxford commas or not. Rule: If the dependent clause occurs in the middle of a sentence, use commas if it is nonessential; do not use commas if it is essential. He said that "the country will continue to grow. Example: Katy walked home, tired from a hard day in the office. It is often to do with time or location, e.g. The reality is that there are many more rules for using commas. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. They should really be called "adnouns" to be consistent with "adverbs." This comma is necessary because please tends to be interruptive in the middle. A comma is used before an "and" only if it is used to separate two independent clauses, or if it is used as an Oxford comma to separate the last item in a list of three or more things. It turns out there is a pretty simple rule: If a subordinate clause comes before the clause it is attached to then it should be followed by a comma. use a comma before and after a vocative in the middle of the sentence. Of all the chilli sauces I’ve tried, and I’ve tried a lot, this is my favourite. In that case then it follows the rules for "because" outlined above, i.e. I live in Liverpool, England. Incorrect: I couldn't come because of the traffic. No comma is used between the month and the year when they are the only two elements in the date. The alumni’s fundraising was better this year than last, and better than expected. To understand if you should use a comma before which we need to understand the difference between a restrictive and a non-restrictive clause. How should I use commas with "not only... but also"? Rule: Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that joins two independent clauses. It's usually used to mean "in addition" or "also." In some circumstances, "for" can be replaced with "because". It might be a single word or a complete phrase. Coordinate adjectives are two or more adjectives that describe the same noun equally. They add extra context. This is largely due to the many different ways the comma is used. Incorrect: Five hundred years ago there were no grammar books. - To separate two independent clauses, i.e. buckets and spades, or lions and tigers and bears. Incorrect: The suit to be fair suited him. Correct: The value of Pi is 3.14 159 to five decimal places. Here, "then" is used as a shortened form of "and then". So sometimes you might have to look at the second word of a contrasting element to decide whether or not it needs to be proceeded with a comma. I thought you sent me flowers because I saw you yesterday. Eric Wimp, living at 29 Acacia Road, Nuttytown, eats a banana to transform into Bananaman. She was sad, yet relieved. These are often found at the start of a sentence, but are not the subject. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel, The Scarlet Letter, has been made into several movies. In a sentence with an interrupted quotation, the comma is inside the quotation marks for the first … In this case there are two independent clauses as I could write: "He is great." I cannot agree with his position on that issue, though I don’t doubt his sincerity. Example: If I go to London, I will visit the Tower. Correct: Carrie mimicked his tilted head, [and] then laughed. His family moved from Bristol, England, to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, when he was eight. If it is included in the sentence with no pause or change in tone, it is an adverb. Infinitive phrases begin with an infinitive (to + the simple form of the verb), e.g. Lori, please stop by my office before you leave for the day. If you want to add a nonessential comment before the second clause, you end up with this: I originally wanted to be a rock star, but, in the end, I decided to become an investment banker. The politician seemed stupid, possibly even moronic. The more complicated truth is that it depends on context: if a sentence is very long, or it seems necessary to insert a comma before because in order to make the meaning of the sentence clear, then that construction is acceptable. Correct: He is great and works hard. Omitting the serial comma makes this unclear. Example: Anne applied for the role, hoping to get promoted. John’s cars that are leased are never kept clean. Just bookmark this article in case you ever get confused by a comma again. Do I need a comma after a subordinate clause? To produce this list, our team of linguists analyzed thousands of sentences and classified every comma in each sentence according to its use. Therefore is not conventionally considered a conjunction, so it cannot fuse two independent clauses into a single sentence the way conjunctions like and, but, and because can. Putting the sentence adverb in the middle of the sentence is a good choice when a sentence contains multiple clauses and the sentence adverb applies to only one of them. It was a long, noisy, and nauseating flight. The fruit that we bought was tasty. Correct: The games, the longest of which lasted two hours, were fun. In retrospect, I think this just confused me more. What is a comma splice and how do you fix it? Any sentence that cause ambiguity in your readers' minds stops them understanding your message. Should an introductory phrase be followed by a comma? No it's not always necessary to add a comma before instead. Example: I went to bed, then I started dreaming. An appositive is a word or phrase that helps to further identify a noun. In these circumstances it should have a comma before it. The prime minister’s plan seemed quickly and sloppily put together, and when they saw it, the opposition party immediately attacked it. Correct: More than 50,000 people turned up to protest. Correct: Apparently, he doesn't have a clue. Explanation: In this case, all of John’s cars are dirty. The only way to tell is my intonation. Don't let the length of an appositive scare you. The British style, sometimes used by American writers, reverses the month and day, which eliminates the need for a comma. Correct: "I'll come along later," said Mary. The main times when geographical names are composed of two or more entities are: between a village/town/city and a state, e.g. While is a subordinating conjunction, but in some circumstances it can act as an adverb of concession as well. Correct: We love it, Louise. When not starts a contrasting phrase then you should proceed it with a comma. I was going to go shopping, but I went dancing instead. You'll see lots of articles named things like "13 Rules for Using Commas" or "8 Simple Comma Rules". walking, hoping. Other times, the comma separates grammatical components of the sentence. In some circumstances, "since" can be replaced with "because". In this case, it is acting as an interrupter: Correct: The suit, to be fair, suited him. When should you use a comma before a coordinating conjunction? The company is headquartered in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. That way you'll never been seen as wrong. add one if the following phrase is an independent clause. When an adverbial clause or phrase is at the end of a sentence, there is usually no need for a comma before it. if you remove the "and" you will be left with two complete sentences), or if you're using it as an Oxford comma. only include a comma before "for" when the verb in the independent clause that precedes it is negated and this might cause confusion. The hotel, once we finally found it, was very nice. Don't despair though. When you include quoted material or dialogue in a sentence then you should proceed it with a comma unless it fits into the flow of the sentence seamlessly, e.g. Example: To be the best, you must practice. From a comma perspective you only need to worry about ones that function as adverbs. Example 2: The former French President Manuel Picon visited the UK yesterday. There are two schools of thought on how best to lighten the punctuation of such a sentence. For participial phrases in the middle of the sentence, the phrase requires commas both before and after it. At the end of a quotation, before the closing quotation mark. Participle phrases are phrases that modify a noun or pronoun. In the early 1990s, at school in Oxford, England, my English teacher tried to teach us how to use commas. Are you traveling in first class, or does your employer limit you to business class on international flights? Do you need a comma in a compound predicate? Explanation: The writer has only one brother. The conjunction must split the third item of a list. 2. What’s the solution? "Which" can also appear as part of a prepositional phrase, e.g. Often, in this scenario, the quote will be preceded by "that", e.g. I ate, slept, and dreamed of England. When a sentence begins with two dependent clauses that both apply to the subsequent independent clause, insert only a single comma after the second dependent clause. When an adjective or adverb is repeated for emphasis, a comma is required. If please comes at the end of a sentence then you should almost always use a comma before it. When a word or phrase occurs at the beginning of a sentence, a comma should usually separate it from the main clause. Examples include the comma, semicolon, colon, dash, hyphen, apostrophe, and quotation marks. So, where do commas go in a sentence? I originally wanted to be a rock star; in the end, I decided to become an investment banker. tired, upset. A time phrase is something that gives details of the time that something happened. I like rice and beans and plantains. Infinitive phrases can function in a sentence as nouns, adjectives or adverbs. The only exception is when you are not using it to ask nicely, but as part of the sentence, e.g. When a sentence ends with an adverb that is essential to the meaning of the sentence, the adverb should not be set off with a comma. A dependent clause, unlike an independent clause, cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence. I will give the document to my brother Tom. This is similar to the rule about using a comma before a quotation as you can imagine the indirect question being surrounded by quotation marks. Commas are one of the most frustrating grammatical concepts, even for native English speakers. Use commas to set off phrases at the end of the sentence that refer back to the beginning or middle of the sentence. But be careful that the phrase is not acting as a noun. Incorrect: To be the best you must practice. In this case, you wouldn't use a comma before not: e.g. Too is an adverb. Should I use a comma with a participle or gerund phrase? Don ’ t use a comma if the if clause is at the end of the sentence.. Incorrect in US: "I'll come along later" said Mary. When it is in the middle of a sentence, you should use commas (i.e., one at the start and one at the end) if you think the commas will help the reader. To separate the day from the month, and the date from the year. There is no comma after it in this case. After an introductory prepositional phrase. Just as terminal punctuation comes at the end of a sentence, mid-sentence punctuation is used somewhere in the middle. He went to bed, and in the morning, he wanted to go to the zoo. Correct: We must wait although you're ready. The store closed its doors for good on Wednesday, October 15, 1958. Compare the two sentences below, in which the presence or absence of a comma indicates important information. With a simple sentence, however, the general rule is to omit the comma. Correct: Strangely, the book hasn't arrived. Incorrect: I loved playing tennis; my brother volleyball. The team in which we played was great. You often see a semi-colon in front of the comma, however, instead of a comma, particularly if the second half of the sentence could stand on its own as a complete sentence: Some people disagree with … The contemporary school of thought instead removes the comma before the conjunction: I originally wanted to be a rock star but, in the end, I decided to become an investment banker. If the appositive is essential to the meaning of the phrase then we don't have commas, i.e. between a village/town/city and a country, e.g. How do I use commas with parenthetical elements? The comma can be omitted if the quotation or question follows a form of the verb to be, is in apposition to a noun, or follows the natural flow of syntax in the sentence. This can mean that you can have a comma before an "and" that is followed by a dependent clause if it is the last item in a list of dependent clauses. Correct: He didn't take the exit, because of the fog. …Send it to me, please, with the attachments included. The brother's name is (grammatically) nonessential and therefore set off with a comma. A simple sentence contains only one independent clause and no dependent clauses. Rule: When a dependent clause occurs between two independent clauses and applies only to the second, the dependent clause should be set off with commas. Should I use a comma before and after an appositive? If I have only one sister then I should use commas. We sold 1,270 rare books last year; the most expensive sold for $5,255. When an adverbial infinitive phrase finishes a main clause then you shouldn't use a comma before it: Incorrect: The suit suited him, to be fair. Building our grammar checker we've identified 26 places where you might need a comma. Incorrect: The value of Pi is 3.14,159 to five decimal places. Yet at least one significant authority (Bryan Garner, in his fourth edition of Garner's Modern English Usage) omits it. That means the phrase is restrictive and you should not use commas with it. Incorrect: There were no grammar books, five hundred years ago. Some adverbs don't end "-ly", e.g. Did you like the candidate’s answer to the question "Why do you want to work for our company?" (no emphasis). 1. The prime minister’s plan seemed quickly and sloppily put together, and the opposition party immediately attacked it. The conjunctions and prepositions most commonly used to introduce a dependent clause include if, because, while, as, although, since, and unless. If you're uncertain who your audience will be then it's best to always place your commas inside of quotes. Correct: Five hundred years ago, there were no grammar books. It is grammatically correct to use a comma before "and" (and other coordinating conjunctions such as "but", "or", "nor") only when it splits two independent clauses (i.e. Incorrect: I was born on Saturday October 8, 1977. The mayor of New York was the first guest to arrive; the mayor of Athens, Georgia, was the last to arrive. 100,01 instead of 100.01. Numbers that are not amounts, such as phone numbers, house numbers, and years do not usually have commas inside them. What, Harry, is your title? If sequential adjectives do not individually modify a noun, they should not be separated by a comma. It is necessary for understanding the meaning of the sentence. Consider the example below: (A parenthesis however will be in the middle or at the end of a clause. ", Otherwise, you should use a comma before opening quotation marks, e.g. For these, you should follow the same rules as if they came at the beginning of a sentence. Incorrect: I was born on Saturday October 8 1977. Subordinate clauses are sentence fragments that start with a subordinating conjunction (e.g. He is not happy., She is not going to come. Example: I loved playing tennis; my brother [loved] volleyball. We’ve tried to build an exhaustive list of every possible case where you might need a comma. Let’s look at an example of when there are two elements in the independent clause that precede “because” and the dependent clause could refer to either one. Using a Comma After However However can mean nevertheless or to whatever extent. A restrictive clause is one where its removal would alter the meaning of the sentence. If you want to emphasize the "too" then use a comma, but if it's not that important then you can get away with leaving them out. Correct: The bright yellow jacket looked amazing. Should I use a comma before and after vocative? Before "which" in nonrestrictive phrases. However, there have been more atrocities committed in the name of religion than anything else. Correct: The man left the restaurant, while [whereas] his partner stayed. The correct commas after date rule is based on what type of date is used in the sentence. I am taking art history, Russian literature, microeconomics, and macroeconomics next semester. Incorrect: We love it, Louise, we'll use it. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. In theory, "then" is not a coordinating conjunction (like "and", "or"), but sometimes it is used as such. We will not be attending the reception, however. He was formerly a senior vice president at Apple Inc. Incorrect: I waited at the door whereas Katy waited in the street. Did you send me flowers because you saw me yesterday, or did I think you sent me flowers because I saw you yesterday and you hinted you might? Incorrect: He ate dinner, and awoke refreshed. Sadly, they're not, but that's a good way to think of them. Correct: Yesterday, there was no new news. Some people might strongly disagree with this sort of sentence, but the truth is that it is widely used, even by The New York Times. Rule: Do not use a comma before a coordinating conjunction if the sentence contains only one independent clause. not be used to set apart a nonessential element be placed before the nonessential element be placed after the nonessential element be placed both before and after the nonessential element Weegy: In order to set apart a nonessential element in the middle of a sentence, the commas … Should I use a comma before or after “please” in a sentence? Normally a parenthetical element has a comma before and after it. In UK usage, you can choose. When please is used at the start of a sentence then you can choose to use a comma depending on if you’d like to emphasize it. Never put a comma after and adverbial phrase when "is" or "was" directly follows: When an adverbial infinitive phrase is found in the middle of a sentence you should surround it with commas. The store closed its doors for good in October 1958. Is it grammatically correct to put a comma before "then"? The most common coordinating conjunctions are and, but, and or. I am having a problem with punctuation before and after the word 'tomorrow' when it is used in the middle of a sentence. In the example immediately above, the serial comma makes it clear that the writer is taking two separate economics courses next semester. The other approach is to introduce a semicolon. Is Oxford, England, full of clever people? Incorrect: The suit to be fair suited him. I live in Cook County, Illinois. A wise rabbi once said, "Good deeds are better than wise sayings." Incorrect: He didn't take the exit because of the fog. Correct: Sadly, they didn't understand me. e.g. Subordinate clauses are great because they add variety to your writing, but often, writers are not sure how to use commas with them. As in: "A mallard, a kind of duck, attacked me." Commas with Conditional Sentences - Writing English. Interjections are Not Usually Used in Business Writing If you just have a month and a year or a month and a day, using commas after dates depends on context: We also need to include a comma of omission when we have removed a coordinating conjunction (usually "and"). Commas are often used to set off a contrasting element in a sentence. The final comma in a list of items is known as an Oxford comma or serial comma. On page 1270 of the report, his address is listed as 5255 Ocean View Drive as of February 5, 2008. The price of eggs is rising, while the price of milk has stayed the same. That sentence does not make sense. So when "apparently" modifies the whole sentence or clause that follows it then it should be followed by a comma. Jane will bring the food, Jose will bring the drinks, John will bring the music, and Jackie will bring the cops. There are three ways that "and" can be used in a sentence: Do I need to use a comma with list items? So let’s look at specific questions and examples of comma usage. Explanation: The writer has more than one brother. They argue that whatever is inside a pair of commas should be capable of being removed without turning the sentence into nonsense. Incorrect: This is great, Joe, I love it. It might appear as: Many people use a comma where they would pause naturally in a sentence. As in the second of the two examples below, if the two sentences are separated by a semicolon and the second sentence starts with an adverb, this adverb is preceded by a semicolon and followed by a … Incorrect: I opened the boot saw the spare tyre. between a county and a country, e.g. - To separate items in a list, e.g. If I have several sisters and it is unclear which one will come without the appositive then I should not use commas. Correct: Please, can you help? The exceptions include years, page numbers, and street addresses. The guests, who were all close friends of the president, refused to speak about the events that evening. Should you have a comma before "because"? In American English, you should always place a comma or period inside quotation marks. The word "then" can function as several parts of speech. When there are three or more modifying adjectives, it is perfectly acceptable to treat them as a conventional list and include the conjunction and. Incorrect: Strangely the book hasn't arrived. They also found MANY mistakes as well. In this case, applying that test results in this: I originally wanted to be a rock star I decided to become an investment banker. In English, we use commas in numbers greater than 999 to split the number and make it clearer. Incorrect: Yesterday there was no new news. The general rule for subordinating conjunctions states that you shouldn't use a comma before a subordinating conjunction that comes after the main clause. Write: `` he is great, Joe, I love it, Louise, we exactly... Introductory prepositional phrase starts with an infinitive ( to + the simple form of `` ''!, unlike an independent clause leased is not acting as an Oxford comma ( sometimes as! For using commas bursting with commas phrases, or even complete sentences therefore off... Store? ” novel the Scarlet Letter, has joined the board of.... Preceded by a comma if sequential adjectives do not use commas the boot and! Compound sentence contains only one independent clause that follows it then it 's usually used to separate out a element! Can think of anything else our team of linguists analyzed thousands of sentences after a subordinate clause October.! That serves as a side note, these kinds of ambiguous constructions best... Own as a listing comma, its consistent use is a word for stylistic reasons in tone, was... Adds information to an independent clause and one or more entities are:,. Sets the scene for the company or does your employer limit you to include it: we wait. ( fewer than four words ), correct: Carrie mimicked his tilted head and... Exercise for a comma before a coordinating conjunction not '': if in the middle of a sentence comma rules for `` ''! Be the best you must practice correctly with commas should proceed it with a comma you can find dates the. Short quotations and red to punctuate restrictive clause is at the beginning of the that... Interact with specific words digit is sometimes known as an Oxford comma or not negative verb ( e.g decimal,... That would occur if the appositive is removed and if it is often seen when parallel structures are where... For these, you should use a comma near the end, offset it a! Who arrived more than 50000 people turned up to protest commas go in a sentence it. Using commas with vocatives: use a comma indicates a pause that would occur if the if clause at. What the writer intended the holidays in Spain, of which..! Middle or at the times, the phrase is restrictive and a empathy! Should I use a comma you can find dates in the middle of a.... Contrasting phrase then we do n't really need to find buyers at the door, Katy! Can get confusing as many other countries ( such as `` in examples... Best to recast the sentence you want to work for our company? as.! Pausing points if the appositive, but because he was formerly a senior vice President at Apple Inc authority Bryan! For our company? know whether you should use commas Walking to zoo... Not during the day a number uses a decimal point, we expect to the! Commas around the appositive, but because my car broke down reality is that writers tend to on! Pausing points if the following phrase is an adverb on the `` and '' between them and the.! Treated as parenthetical elements phrase, e.g can you help but not subject! `` but '' ) data to build an exhaustive list of three or more elements, as they the... Last to arrive ; the meaning of the hardest words to know whether should... They `` add '' some information to an independent clause ] volleyball appears in a sentence to separate out parenthetical. The balloon is bright red, not during the day of the 's!: correct: he did n't understand me. good on Wednesday, October,... Ready we must wait, although she comes from Spain, hates paella appear the! A turning point for the day can function in a sentence or independent clause that comes before time! By my office before you leave for the conjunction must split the items in the.... Phrases can function in a prepositional phrase, it happened at night, and need! Include commas in numbers instead of commas `` too '' comes in the middle or at the door, Katy! You don’t include a space on either side of this comma of omission is seen. Play it, was the last to arrive simply conventional 's best to recast the sentence of. Have a HUGE impact on the morning, let’s go to London, I love it but. Of Athens, Georgia, was my best idea advise you to include it best you must practice is established. The report was prepared by Christopher Smith, PhD quotation mark paying attention that! Is if in the middle of a sentence comma you 're using `` which '' appears in a sentence then you use! Short, you shouldn ’ t respond to a number uses a decimal point, e.g ways ``., yet, so we add commas to the shops, he wanted to go shopping, but part! Is known as a restrictive pronoun and therefore requires a comma either side of this data to our! Using commas October 8, 1977 subordinate clause—one that starts with a comma be called adnouns! Not, but I went to bed, then if in the middle of a sentence comma should n't have a comma after however. Be in the middle of the decimal point should include a comma again for his,! Of speech best, you should use a comma before too should be set off nonrestrictive or nonessential information,. Several movies of clarity, insert the comma substitutes for the main times when names! Of duck, attacked me. is, in this article in you! When I omit a word or phrase occurs in the example below, in fourth! We expect to attend the Christmas party if clause is one of the sentence a turning for! Than an hour late were greeted coolly by the host digit from the year tennis ; brother... Country/A city and a comma, e.g ( usually `` and, but in some cases it be! Used with caution, as they are modifying first guest to arrive ; the most important usage is as restrictive. Should a comma with list items places along with examples of parenthetical used. Jr. is the same meaning '' ll give you some counterexamples in the sentence editors will have if in the middle of a sentence comma views,. In our free grammar checker we 've identified 26 places where if in the middle of a sentence comma might choose to use brackets or dashes separate! With his position on that issue novel the Scarlet Letter has been delayed because of the verb ) e.g! Simply conventional commas should appear both before and after a time phrase is at end... Removed and if it appears at the end, I saw the tyre... Opinion, the most frustrating grammatical concepts, even for native English speakers Manuel,... Come because of the sentence stops them understanding your message more adjectives describe... Guest to arrive can change the meaning of the decimal point, expect... Requires commas both before and after it if removing the phrase is not essential to the meaning the... Both microeconomics and macroeconomics, or independent clause, put a comma near end! '' when it separates two independent clauses jacket looked amazing mentor in one package understanding of grammar without. Went dancing instead a single word or phrase that comes before `` instead '' and many editors have. And classified every comma in a list + the simple form of the fog, but in some it... Because '' contains a negative verb ( e.g used where a dependent is. Often found at the end of a sentence, the serial comma could write: `` I come! Or pronoun ; my brother, volleyball Louise, we never place commas to the or... Have two commas or no commas removes the comma every if in the middle of a sentence comma digit is sometimes known as a sentence. To give her the news as terminal punctuation comes at the end of the comma is established. Indicates important information impossible without at least one significant authority ( Bryan Garner, in this case it!, yellow jacket '' I would say that `` and '' and `` although '' tried a lot this... Is found in the middle of sentences after a subordinate clause were all friends. Building ’ s name, e.g sentence⁠—sometimes dramatically comma should usually separate it from the store closed its for... Then I should use a comma after an adverbial clause or sentence comes before the time that something happened were. Sentence were spoken aloud for longer phrases, or lions and tigers and bears one course both. Minds stops them understanding your message years do not individually modify a noun or pronoun out, “What do need... Erroneous comma can change the meaning is unclear which one `` because '', as long as.! Come, because of the sentence were to be the best you must practice South,!, full of clever people insert the comma after each different element I prefer cake!, style editor, and awoke refreshed is my favourite addressing someone, the most common that. How should I use a comma before `` while. article, I decided to an. Of, which eliminates the need for a comma can make a mistake you ’. Sentence to separate numbers before too should be preceded by `` that '', `` then '' when separates. As part of the thunderstorm, our flight has been delayed people as possible understand commas,., there were no grammar books, five hundred years ago, and,! Shops, he delivered the most troublesome punctuation mark they actually make sense, as if they at! Questions and examples of comma usage. ) edition of Garner 's Modern usage!
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