Carthage was reduced to the status of a client state and lost all power of enacting its own treaties and diplomacy. A Carthaginian decoy baited the Romans into following it into the trap, while the bulk of the main army occupied the high ground surrounding the northern lake shores. Victories over Syracuse in Sicily and at Capua in Italy allowed the Romans to send some reinforcements and plan for the next year's campaign. The two armies positioned their lines and soon advanced against one another. After Baecula, Hasdrubal moved to reinforce Hannibal in Italy with his remaining army and Scipio moved against the armies of Mago and Hasdrubal Gisgo. Fortunately for Hannibal, the Celts on the Italian side of the Alps were far friendlier and Gallic recruits pushed the Carthaginians back up to between 30,000 and 40,000 men. The causes of the First Punic War were mainly clashes of economic interests. Carthage, however, had recalled Hannibal from Italy and seemed to accept the terms only to give Hannibal enough time to return. While a frightening sight to the Romans, Scipio's plan worked and the elephants went neatly into the open lanes. Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus were elected in his place and it was their mission to remove Hannibal for good. Isolated along the eastern Italian coast, the Roman's jumped at the chance to crush Hasdrubal before he could reinforce Hannibal. History of Rome (books 21-30) provides a more complete chronicle. After an eight month siege, Saguntum was captured. In the battle, Mago was wounded and another brother of Hannibal, Hanno, was killed. Scipio, having defeated the master of all strategists of the time, now stood as the world's greatest general. The Romans won and they forced the Carthaginians to give up their territory in Spain and the Mediterranean, give up their elephants, burn their warships, pay a fine, and never go to war without Rome's permission. With the victory on the Ebro, the domination of the Roman navy was never again challenged throughout the length of the entire war. These five armies (3 Carthaginian, 2 Roman… His elephants were gone, but of his regular army only the newly recruited Gauls suffered at all. Following its defeat in the First Punic War, the Carthaginian Empire looked to rebuild its power base by controlling Spain. The third and final war lasted 49-146 B.C, for 3 years. These survivors were later reconstituted as two units and assigned to Sicily for the remainder of the war as punishment for their loss. At the critical juncture, Mago's ambush was sprung, and the Romans were finished. As the two armies were drawn up in their lines, Hannibal requested a meeting directly with Scipio. The key factor behind the political stability of the Republic up until the aftermath of the Punic Wars was that there had never been open fighting between elite Romans in the name of political power. The great beasts quickly panicked and turned on their own lines to escape the carnage. The mutiny was quickly quelled as Scipio recovered, payments were arranged and the ringleaders executed, and operations soon continued as normal. Hannibal, despite his heavily favored ratio of victories in the overall campaign, was becoming more and more desperate for reinforcements after every engagement; victory or defeat. United Nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) represents the all encompassing power of Rome in the ancient world. At first, the Roman front line was beaten badly in the center, but Scipio left more men in reserve, forcing Hannibal to leave some men uncommitted. The Carthaginians, now in total command of Hispania, were seemingly ill prepared for total victory and failed to capitalize on the opportunity. Sicily would become very important to Rome as a source of grain. He proved his worth to Rome and fought a brilliant campaign in Spain. At first, the Romans massacred the inhabitants in order to flush out any remaining resistance but when the Carthaginian commander (another Mago) surrendered, Scipio ordered the end of the slaughter. Rome then attacks Carthage. In Hispania, his brother Hasdrubal still commanded the defense of Carthaginian interests. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Light troops send by Scipio to scout the enemy were met by Numidian cavalry and soundly defeated. The first, commanded by Publius Cornelius Scipio the Elder, was set to depart for Spain. With winter approaching, the Carthaginians instead moved to the north and the town of Capua. Here, the residents welcomed Hannibal and his army used the city as its winter base until 215 BC. In so doing, the Romans also refused to pay ransoms to Hannibal for any captured legionaries who still remained. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. You must refer both to this passage, and to your knowledge of Polybius as a writer. Hannibal, it was suggested, lost his spirit, understanding that Rome would rather sacrifice its own than surrender anything to him. Roman citizens were butchered while Tarentine locals were untouched, and Hannibal finally had his port. In 217 BC, Hasdrubal, now in command of the Carthaginian forces, recruited heavily among the local Iberians. While Hannibal was making his march across the Alps, the Romans took the fight and retaliation for Saguntum, directly to the Carthaginians in Spain. Hannibal's approach, among other factors, inspired a revolt among the Boii and Insubrian tribes in Cisapline Gaul, and Roman plans were forced to change. At the time, between the 3 armies, estimates of 35,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and 30 elephants have been given for the total Carthaginian force. Hannibal rose to power in 221 BC after the assassination of his father, Hamilcar. The Punic Wars were clashes between titans and were arguably the largest wars of the time period as the two participants were some of the most powerful nations of the time. Both sides of the Numidian forces had already been at war, and while being used to the advantage of both Rome and Carthage, both also sought favor by the two warring parties. Scipio Africanus was at first proclaimed as a great hero, which he was. Hannibal, by this time had managed to gather as many as 40,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to confront the smaller force of Scipio with 30,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry. In less than a year since the disaster at Trasimenus, the Roman's greatest loss was in history put the state into a panic. He had lost his power over Mediterranean Sea; losing Sicily and the compensation imposed on him by Rome greatly affected his economy. The effect of the second Punic war was Rome's dominance of the Western Mediterranean. Severely outnumbered, Marcellus' trick worked and with an inferior force, was able to fight Hannibal to a terribly bloody draw. Company Registration No: 4964706. Hannibal, however, managed to escapethe slaughter and returned to Hadrumetum with a small escort. Despite the popular conception that the elephants played a major role in the campaign, by this time, all of his elephants had died. Meanwhile, the Romans were waiting in Cisalpine Gaul under Scipio the Elder. Hannibal waited with his army arranged as a screen with 10,000 cavalry and elephants, flanking the infantry of 30,000. Both he and Scipio spent the remainder of the year spreading Roman control while preparing for the final campaign to eliminate the Carthaginian presence in Hispania. As a result Spanish forces were sent to Africa to help quell the rebellion, but rather than putting it to an end, Syphax was able to withdraw via Gibraltar and add his vaunted Numidian cavalry to the Roman cause. New legions were raised with conscripts from previous untouched citizen classes. After Trasimenus, Maximus felt that the Romans had little chance against Hannibal in open warfare. The truth of that nature was self evident. Scipio's men shouted and banged their swords on their shields, archers attacked the riders, and the spearman attacked the sides of the elephants. As it continued both lines were arranged in similar patterns on the field, with the main infantry of both armies occupying the center, flanked by local tribesman. Arriving in northern Italy in the Spring of 208 BC, Hasdrubal immediately set out to join with Hannibal in the south and bolster his brother's flagging army. In a fast and furious display of death, Hannibal ordered his men to stand down only a few short hours after they originally encircled the enemy. As they victoriously fought farther into the center of Hannibal's lines, they were actually walking themselves right into being completely encircled. After repulsing Hannibal at Nola, the Romans didn't have the power to take the offensive. The death of Marcellus though, provided little real improvement to Hannibal's fortunes. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. The Roman plan for the season was simple, engage and defeat the Carthaginian ground forces. From his base in Tarraco, Scipio immediately set about boosting the morale of his troops and securing alliances with local Celtiberian tribes. The Gallic Celts were no friends of the Romans and many joined with him while en route. Scipio also prepared for the final campaign in securing new recruits among local Roman allies. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Rome prior to the Punic Wars was just a local power staring that had only tenuous control over the other Italian cities; Greek colonies to the south and the Carthaginian presence in Sicily put her on a collision course with the latter. When the main armies met, the situation stabilized slightly for Rome, but the flanking pressure from the superior Numidian cavalry soon began to turn the tide. The "Delayer" as Maximus was known, became a hated target and his dictatorship didn't last long. The long lasting result of this war is the destruction of the Carthage itself. In distress, Hannibal and his army returned home. Roman success within a year forced Hannibal and Mago to be recalled for the defense of Carthage, though Mago would die en route. Believing Scipio was too ill, or perhaps even dead, to make good on payments, they revolted on the Sucro River in 206 BC. Near the Baetis River, the battle of Baecula faced 40,000 to 50,000 Romans against as many as 30,000 Carthaginian forces. Late in the year 203 BC, Syphax was still operating with a small force near Cirta. Hamilcar Barca, the premier Phoenician general, humiliated and angered over Rome's peace terms, and the seizure of Sardinia during Carthage's own mercenary war, looked to Spain as an overland launching point for future action against Rome. Whether he considered the march itself too exhausting, allowing the Romans time to organize a defense, lack of supplies, or simple shock over his complete victory at Cannae. All work is written to order. The Twelve Tables are the first attempt to make a law code, and remained the only attempt for nearly one thousand years. United and Romanized, through conquest, or absorbed through its culture, Rome still stands today as a legacy to the achievement of mankind, and its failures. In the 220's BC, they established a treaty with Carthage limiting expansion to anything south of the Ebro. This system allowed Rome to obtain important grain from Sicily as well as profits from the tributes and natural resources they obtained. Forced to fight in the open without the tightly formed legionary tactics, the Romans were driven against the lake and completely surrounded. Take which you will.' The Second Punic War is also described by Polybius, as well as by Livy, whose. By 205 BC, Mago, knowing the cause in Spain was lost, sailed from Liguria to Italy in an attempt to join with Hannibal but was subsequently defeated in Cisalpine Gaul much like Hasdrubal before him. Fighting illness, Scipio continued the campaign against the remnants of Carthaginian resistance. Consolidating with the remaining forces still left in Spain, he began his campaign with 28,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry, and would receive no reinforcements from Italy for the remainder of the war. By this time, in 202 BC, Hannibal had also returned and recruited a new army of 25,000 men to supplement his 12,000 veterans. Causes of the Second Punic War The Second Punic war “was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean.” With 17 years of battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. His efforts were in vain, however, as the Punic armies stormed the hastily construced defenses and destroyed the army of the Romans. The rings signifying membership in the Senate and from those of Equestrian (Knight class or the elite class after Patrician) status were collected from the dead in baskets and later thrown onto the floor of the Carthaginian Senate in disrespect. Explain your opinion. Carthage remained a major trading center. Two Roman armies, under the commands of the Consuls Gaius Claudius Nero and M. Livius Salinator, met Hasdrubal near the Metaurus River in 207 BC. There was nothing keeping Hannibal from sacking Rome itself at this point, other than Hannibal. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. o CAUSES OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR EVENTS DURING THE SECOND PUNIC WAR Carthaginian General, Hannibal, lays siege to city of Saguntum. From there, he continued on to Sicily to prepare for the invasion of Carthage itself on the African mainland. On a small strip of land where the Romans were bottled up, estimates as high as 60,000 corpses were piled one on top of another. In Rome, the defeats were obviously shocking but were greeted with a resolute response. By the 15th day, Hannibal stepped down into the foothills of northern Italy. Encouraged, Hannibal hurried to Scipio's camp intending to use his own cavalry to overwhelm the Romans, unaware that Masinissa and his vaunted Numidians would soon arrive. Despite this, Scipio was ready to put an end to the war in Spain and he marched to Illipa to meet the advancing Carthaginian army. Rome not only survived the period during the Punic Wars, they conquered and prospered. Roman diplomatic attempts over the winter to seek justice from Carthage over Hannibal's siege met with failure. In the aftermath, a great number of the Capuan citizenry was sold into slavery for punishment and the land of the town was auctioned off to Roman citizens. It was created to provide the people with a direct representative magistrate. In Macedonia, Philip V moved against Illyricum and Roman interests in Greece in open alliance with Hannibal. Also scouting the enemy during the winter before his first campaign, he discovered that the Carthaginian forces were not only still divided in three forces, but that in-fighting between them seemed to show a lack of cooperation. The first Punic War was fought over the control of Sicily and the Western Mediterranean. The battle opened with the elephants charging the Roman lines. He, of course, took full advantage of Carthaginian weakness and captured much territory from the city in the afermath of its defeat (probably encourage from Rome.). Looking for a flexible role? Malnourished, weather-beaten and exhausted, the Carthaginian force was met with resistance by many of the local Gallic tribes. Libyans, Moors and the fall of Utica, while ranching was decisive! 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