In most of southern Africa, rainfall peaks in the austral summer/boreal winter. We evaluated the combined aspects of anomalous high rainfall and concurrent soil saturation in a RVF forecast model for South Africa, using accurate temporal and spatial records of the 2008–2011 epidemics to derive risk maps (Directorate of Animal Health, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, pers. South of the Equator, at yet greater distance from the convergence zone, the maritime air masses are less-heated, thick, and stable, and they bring hardly any rainfall, except over some of the East African highlands. African deserts are the sunniest and the driest parts of the continent, owing to the prevailing presence of the subtropical ridge with subsiding, hot, dry air masses. There is high average temperatures and humidity throughout the year. Typically experiencing higher average temperatures, urban areas also frequently have less wind and lower relative humidity; there is too little relevant data from Africa, however, to permit a detailed study of urban climates. TROPICAL WET. The Llanos of Columbia is characterized by mean annual rainfall of 200cm-400cm (near Andes Mountain), mean annual temperature of 22°C, and maximum temperature of 32°C. For the multi-region sector average R j, the first step is an arithmetic average of the standardized departures from all I stations within the sector that are available for the season or year in question. Toward the coast the climate shows maritime characteristics, and there is a tendency toward winter rainfall. 1.1 General overview The climate across southern Africa … In fact, the climate of Africa is more variable by rainfall amount than by temperatures, which are consistently high. The use of high-resolution rainfall data inherently accounts for the temporal distribution of rainfall intensity. Precipitation of Equatorial Climate: Equatorial regions receive rainfall throughout the year and thus there is no dry season. The stability of these maritime air masses is induced by their passing over the cool body of water offshore. Climate Information Tool, Monthly Data This tool provides data for any location in Africa, even if no weather station is available. This is experienced in the coastal region of E.Africa. While the Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate with winter rainfall, most of the country experiences summer rain. The humid subtropical marine climate is restricted to the southeast coast of Africa. A follow-up report that provides a specific focus on the climate of the semi-arid regions of southern Africa is currently under development. In East Africa Rodhe and Virji (1976)used agraphical technique inexamining the nature of trend of annual rainfall of 35 stations concentrated mainly i~~Kenya and northern Tanzania. High-resolution rainfall data are often required as input into continuous simulation hydrological models and other hydrological studies. While maize is productive, its key limitation is a lack of tolerance to high temperatures and drought conditions. During this time heavy rain falls every day in the afternoon. Precipitation up to 4000 mm a year is no exception. Iquitos (Peru), Akassa and Ocean Island receive 261 cm, 366cm and 213cm of rain per annum respec­tively. Extreme rainfall in West Africa: A regional modeling ... rainfall extremes in order to provide regional maps of high quantiles of the distributions (typically, 20 to 100 year or higher return period values), thus allowing to estimate these quantiles at nonobserved sites. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. In the four equatorial regions rainfall tends to peaks in the boreal spring and autumn. Regions with the equatorial, or tropical wet, type of climate, or variants thereof, are the wettest in Africa. Fifth, because of the extensive plateau surfaces of the continent and the absence of high and long mountain ranges comparable to, for example, the Andes in South America or the Himalayas in Asia, climatic zones in Africa tend to shade into one another, rather than change abruptly from place to place. Warm all year, distint rainy or dry seasons, at least 20 inches of rain during the summer. In South Africa, the largest highland area is the Highveld region, more than 1 000 m in altitude, bordered by the Drakensberg, reaching more than 3 000 m. The mountain ranges in the Cape region also belong to this ecological zone. The harmattan is a warm, dry, northeasterly or easterly wind that blows out of the southern Sahara and is frequently laden with large quantities of sand and dust. The rainfall is high and ranges between 1000mm and 1800mm. The tropical wet-and-dry region is often called the savanna climatic region; this implies, incorrectly, that all areas with savanna vegetation have this type of climate. As the other equatorial climate in this region, this region has no dry season but has a well-developed double maximum rainfall in May and October. These quantify the strength of seasonality, and the wet-season start- and end-dates, length, total rainfall amount, number of rain days and rainfall intensity. The central portion of the continent is wetter, with tropical rainforests, grasslands, and semi-arid climates. Instead of spring, summer, fall, and winter, most countries south of the Sahara Desert have dry and rainy seasons. The warm temperate upland climatic region is found on the Highveld of Southern Africa. Immediately south of the convergence zone, rainfall is heavy because of the unstable nature of maritime tropical air over a heated land surface. Temperatures in South Africa tend to be lower than in other countries at similar latitudes – such as Australia – mainly because of its greater elevation above sea level. The temperature here averages 16.9 °C | 62.4 °F. Types of Climates. The green polygon in both panels illustrates the location of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. For example, the rainfall may be monsoonal and the second rainy season may be all but nonexistent. only received major rainfall half of the year and dry season the other half. Problem. Africa straddles the Equator from 37⁰ N to 34⁰ S. Africa has two Sub-tropical belts with the ITCZ somewhat equidistant from the two high pressure zones. Climates of Africa - "Low" and "High" Africa. The climate across West Africa varies from arid to tropical monsoon conditions. At this season the whole of northern Africa (except the Atlas Mountains) is under the dry continental tropical air mass, while Southern Africa receives rainfall except in the Cape region and on the southwest coast, where the maritime air mass remains stable offshore over the cool Benguela Current. This report provides a general overview of the regional climate in southern Africa. In this study, we explore the possible mechanism of opposite ENSO effects on summer rainfall in the JJAS region (northern GHA) and autumn rainfall in the OND region (equatorial GHA). Rainfall influences Africa’s agriculture. In July the ITCZ—following the sun—moves northward toward the area of low pressure over the Sahara; there the maritime and continental tropical air masses converge, with the maritime air masses swinging inland from the sea. Urban areas, for example, have climates that often differ in many respects from those of the surrounding countryside. A number of factors influence the climate of the African continent. In a few places—for example, on the coast of Mauritania and Senegal—there is also a little rainfall in the period of low sun. Region 1, the easternmost region, has more rainfall in the boreal spring, similar to eastern equatorial Africa. The rainforests consist of various layers of vegetation, from shrubs and ferns on the ground to trees that grow up to a height of 50 metres. Among the many explanations that have been suggested are that the presence of a cold body of water offshore chills the lower layers of the maritime air mass and makes it stable, that the body of cold air that forms offshore diverts the incoming airstreams to the west and east of the anomalously dry area, that there is a strong tendency for the winds to blow parallel to the shore during the rainy seasons, that the absence of highlands deprives the region of orographic (mountain) rainfall, that fluctuations in the offshore moisture-bearing winds occur during the rainy season and reduce rainfall, and that local meteorological peculiarities of thunderstorms contribute to the reduction in rainfall. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 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